Cancer Treatment

What is Cancer ?

Cancer, also known as malignancy, is an unusual spurt or growth of cells. There are more than 100 types that fall under the group of cancer some of the popular ones being breast cancer, skin cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer and as we mentioned the list goes on. Development of cancer in the body takes place when the body’s control mechanism stops functioning leading to unusual and abnormal growth of the cells. The old cells do not die in this process which is also an abnormal and major sign of cancer

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Categories of cancer? ( What are the types of cancer )

Cancer can affect any part of the body. As mentioned above - In female breast cancer and in male prostate cancer are most common of all. Along with both, lung and colorectal cancer are commonly found among those who are affected. In general, cancers are segregated under 5 categories which are mentioned below:

  • Carcinomas: It affects the skin or tissues that line the internal organs.
  • Sarcomas: Affects the bone, cartilage, muscle, fat or other tissues which are connective in nature.
  • Leukaemia: blood and bone marrow.
  • Lymphomas: Immune system.
  • Central nervous system cancers: The brain and spinal cord.

Causes of cancer

Usually, cancer cannot be attributed to a single cause however the common reason behind it is the accumulated damage caused to the cell which is triggered in a long run by chance or by exposure to a cancer-causing agent. Agents of substance which cause cancer are also known as carcinogens which can be either a substance, certain molecules, radionuclide or radiation which promotes a process known as carcinogenesis, a.k.a formation process of cancer

As an overview, we can bifurcate the cause of cancer in the following 4 groups

  • Genetic or biological factors: Like age, gender, inherited defective genes etc
  • Environmental Exposure: Example - UV Rays, Radon or Fine Particulate Matter
  • Occupational Exposure to Radiations, Chemicals that leads to the process of carcinogenesis, asbestos and radioactive material
  • Lifestyle-related factor-like consumption of tobacco, alcohol, consumption of food which consist of nitrite or polyaromatic hydrocarbons which are emitted through activities like barbeque

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Symptoms of Cancer

Symptoms vary depending on the type of cancer however the warning signs are common amongst various types of cancer

  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Unusual Lumps
  • Exhaustion
  • Excess weight loss
  • Regular or continuous fever and cough
  • Swelling or lump under the skin
  • Depression
  • Unusual bleeding

However, these can also be symptoms of flu however it is best that you seek a diagnosis of the same

Cancer Diagnosis

1. Cancer Screening: It is best if cancer is diagnosed at the early stages as it provides the best chance to cure cancer. Your doctor will recommend what type of screening would be required.

2. Cancer Diagnosis: Your doctor may recommend one or more approaches to diagnose cancer.

  • Physical Examination: Your doctor may examine a few areas of the body to find lumps and understand if there is an existence of a tumour. He may also look for the existence of changes in the skin, enlargement of organs which may indicate towards cancer.
  • Lab Tests: We have a lab at our centre in order to examine the presence of cancer with the help of blood or urine tests.
  • Imaging: The doctor may ask for certain imaging test like CT Scan, Bone Scan, MRI Scan, Ultrasound, PET Scan or X-Ray in order to examine your bones or internal organs in a non-invasive way
  • Biopsy: Your doctor may ask for a biopsy to collect samples of your cells and to examine them in the laboratory. The collection procedure of the sample will depend on the location and type of cancer. It is the best way of determining and diagnosing cancer.

Stages of Cancer

Once the cancer is detected, the doctor will then check the stage, grade or extent to which the cancer is progressed depending on which the doctor determines the treatment option along with the chances of the cancer cures. Usually, the grades are marked on the scale if 1 to 4 in roman numerals ( i.e I - IV ). 1st being the initial stage and 4th being the most advanced stage.

Cancer Treatment

There are many cancer treatment options depending upon the stage, type and location of cancer:

Surgery: The goal of surgery is to remove cancer or tumour as much as possible, We have successfully treated more than 1,000 cancer patients since we have the team and experts best in the whole of Pune.

Other Cancer treatment may include chemotherapy, radiation, Immunotherapy, Hormone therapy, Targeted drug therapy and many more.

The treatment option depends on various factors and goals which are mentioned below:

  • Cure: So that the patient can live as much as normal life as possible. It may or may not be possible, depending on specific situations
  • Primary Treatment: The goal in the primary treatment is to completely remove or kill cancer in the patient’s body. The most opted primary treatment option is surgery.
  • Adjuvant Treatment: This goal is used to post the primary treatment in order to ensure or try at the best to keep recurrence at bay
  • Palliative Treatment: Used to relieve side effect of the treatment or at best signs and symptoms of cancer too. Medicines are used in this goal to reduce pain or shortness of breath. It can go hand in hand with any other treatment