Obesity is a complex, relapsing, multifactorial and neurobehavioral disease which involves an excessive amount of body fat which results in change in metabolic, biomechanical and psychology adversely and abnormally.Obesity is not just a cosmetic consideration but a medical condition that creates a risk of various chronic illnesses and health problems, including diabetes, high blood pressure, joint pains, infertility, sexual dysfunction, cardiovascular diseases, sleep apnea and certain types of cancer in a few cases. The many non-fatal but debilitating conditions that affect the obese. These are responsible for a much reduced quality of life in overweight patients
BMI can be considered to provide the most useful, albeit crude, population-level measure of obesity. BMI is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify underweight, overweight and obesity in adults. It is defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in metres (kg/m2). (Check your BMI in provided calculator). An Asian individual having Body Mass Index (BMI) of 27.5+ or higher is diagnosed as Obese.
Obesity overall results from a combination of various causes and various contributing factors. It is a disease or a medical disorder considered to be the effect of genetic, metabolic and hormonal influences on body weight. Obesity is caused by a combination of inherited many factors including diet, exercise or physical activity, lifestyle and even social conditions.
Below is detailed list with description about the causes of obesity:
The genes inherited from parents may affect the amount of body fat in children, and where that fat is distributed in them. Genetics may play an important role in efficiency of the body to convert food into energy, how your body would regulate appetite and how your body would burn calories during exercise. Some families tend to have a tendency of obesity. It is not necessarily because of the genes. But, the members in the family may also have common habits of eating and activity contributing to obesity.
Diet is one of the major contributing factors under lifestyle as a cause of Obesity. Unhealthy diets such as a diet with calories that does not include fruits and vegetables, junk food, oversized portions of food serving and drinking liquids with high-calorie beverages such as alcohol and sugary soft drinks, all contributes to weight gain. Also, some people don’t have healthier foods since they can't cook and the sources they get the food from do not provide healthier food
Inactivity is another of the major contributing factors under lifestyle as a cause of Obesity. Watching television and looking at desktop computer or tablet and even mobile phone screens is a sedentary activity. Doing this for long hours in a day without having exercise amounts to inactivity which results into no burning of calories taken in, and subsequently contributes to weight gain. Also, many people don’t have a safe space for walking or exercise or they spend excessive time with friends and people who have obesity and remain poorly active which causes obesity .
4. Medical problems causing inactivity
Medical problems, such as Prader-Willi syndrome, Cushing syndrome and Arthritis can lead to inactivity, resulting in weight gain.
Medications such as diabetes medications, anti-seizure medications, antidepressants, antipsychotic medications, beta-blockers, and steroids can lead to weight gain if proper diet or activity is not done.
Due to the aging process, hormonal changes occur in the body and then a less active lifestyle increase the risk of obesity. Muscle mass in the body tends to decrease with age, which causes decrease in metabolism and calories needs. However, if calorie intake is not reduced it results in weight gain.
Weight gained by women during the pregnancy can lead them to obesity if not controlled after the baby is born, especially when breast-feeding is not provided to the baby.
Many people intake food to cope up with smoking withdrawal leading to obesity
Imbalance of sleep that is taking less or more sleep can cause changes in the hormones that increase appetite for carbohydrates, resulting in weight gain.
In stressful situations people tend to have more high-calorie food causing obesity.
11. Yo-yo Dieting
Weight gain can also happen due to the phenomenon of yo-you dieting where, after any attempts to lose weight by dieting, the body starts regaining the lost wait by slowing down metabolism and tending to have more diet.
Gut bacteria Microbiome is affected by food intake and may cause weight gain or difficulty in losing weight.
It is best to consult with the bariatric doctor about weight management and to discuss your weight loss or obesity treatment options. Even small weight loss can improve or prevent the health problems associated with obesity. Hormones in the body play a significant role in weight management and it can be controlled through diet and exercise to a certain extent and further with the help of a bariatric doctor through medical options for treating obesity.
|Diet Exercise Behavior Modification|
Above is a chart to understand how and when to consider a treatment option which are listed below depending on the BMI Calculation: