Colectomy also known as large bowel resection is the surgical procedure used to treat colon cancer, tumours, inflammatory diseases and diverticulitis. Colectomy is a common procedure used to eliminate and remove the cancer cells with the help of a surgical removal of the large intestine, fully or partly. It is also called large bowel resection. It is followed by supplementary procedures to reattach the remaining portions of the digestive system in order to enable the waste to leave the body.

Types of colectomy

Following are various types of Colectomy procedure depending on what part of

  • Total colectomy - The entire colon.
  • Partial colectomy - A part of the colon and may also be called subtotal colectomy.
  • Hemicolectomy - Either left or right portion of the colon.
  • Proctocolectomy - The colon and rectum also.
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Right Hemicolectomy

Right Hemicolectomy

Left Hemicolectomy

Left Hemicolectomy

Transverse Colectomy

Transverse Colectomy

Sigmoid Colectomy

Sigmoid Colectomy

A colectomy may be done anywhere within the shaded areas of the diagrams

When is a Colectomy procedure required?

The procedure may be required to cure or prevent diseases and conditions that affect colon, such as following:
  • Genetic condition – When inherited genetic condition increases colon cancer risk, such as familial adenomatous polyposis or Lynch syndrome, Colectomy is a recommended option as preventive surgery.
  • High risk of colon cancer - Total colectomy may be a chosen option of preventive surgery for very high risk of colon cancer due to the formation of multiple precancerous colon polyps.
  • Ulcerative colitis –Total colectomy may be required and recommended by a doctor if medications aren't helping to control your signs and symptoms. If precancerous changes are found during a colonoscopy then colectomy also may be an option.
  • Bleeding that can't be controlled - Colon may require surgery to remove the affected portion of the colon due to severe bleeding from it.
  • Bowel obstruction - Depending on the situation, a blocked colon is an emergency that may require total or partial colectomy,
  • Colon cancer - Early-stage cancers may require only a small section of the colon to be removed during colectomy If medications aren't helping, More portion of the colon may be required to be removed in case of cancers at a later stage
  • Crohn's disease - Removing the affected part of colon may offer temporary relief from signs and symptoms. Colectomy may also be an option if precancerous changes are found during colonoscopy, a test to examine the colon.
  • Diverticulitis - Surgery to remove the affected portion of the colon may be recommended by doctor if diverticulitis recurs or if complications of diverticulitis is experienced.

Methods of conducting the colectomy surgery

Our aim at Laparo obeso centre is to treat patients with minimal invasive procedures and thus we choose to treat patients with laparoscopic colectomy over the open surgery option available.

Laparoscopic colectomy

Laparoscopic colectomy is a minimally invasive procedure wherein many ( three to five ) small incisions are made on the lower abdomen instead of one large incision. A laparoscope along with a telescopic video camera is inserted through the incisions and is used to see inside of the abdomen, and is inserted through an incision. Small surgical instruments are passed through 2 other incisions through which the colon is removed. Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas is filled in the lower abdomen and expanded for easy access post which the diseased part of the colon is removed. Post which the healthy parts of the colon are reattached and all the incisions made are closed with the help of sutures.

Some of the ways to prevent the colon cancer include high fibre diets and vitamins, avoid smoking and alcohol consumption, lose weight in case you are obese, and a healthy life style can lessen risk of colon cancer.

What to expect before the colectomy laparoscopic surgery?

Before the procedure it is essential to do fasting and intake laxative solution for clearing bowels as recommended by the doctor. On the day of the surgery the patient's blood pressure and breathing is monitored and an antibiotic medication is introduced in the blood for preventing bacterial infection.

What to expect during the colectomy laparoscopic surgery?

Colectomy is performed under general anaesthesia so that the patients fall asleep. The procedure may take around 1 to 4 hours depending on each case.

What to expect after the colectomy laparoscopic surgery?

It can take a few days to weeks after this surgical procedure for the patient to recover. Surgeons may discharge the patient from the hospital in a few days to a week after surgery, depending on the recovered condition of the patient.